Obesity and being overweight are conditions affecting over a third of the global population today (Hruby & Hu, 2015). The increasing prevalence of obesity emanates from increasing industrialization, economic growth, urbanization, sedentary lifestyle culture, mechanized support, and nutritional transition to processed foods. Obesity is a global economic problem due to the strain it places on the healthcare system spending, which comes from taxpayer money through government finance (Dobbs & Manyika, 2015). As much as an economic burden may have some significance in the criticality of reducing the menace, it is the health effects of obesity that cause more concern. Some of the comorbidities related to overweight and obesity include cancers (breast, endometrial, ovarian, colorectal, esophageal, kidney, pancreatic, prostate), Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, Coronary Artery Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, asthma, chronic back pain, osteoarthritis, pulmonary embolism, gallbladder disease, and an increased risk disability. Additionally, obesity contributes to an annual mortality rate of three million deaths (Djalalinia et al., 2015).

Project Description 

The present report develops a recommendation regarding nutrition and physical activity, or a combination of both as a preventive approach to the health issue. The research will identify the risk factors associated with obesity to illustrate the potential that nutrition and activity-based approaches pose to preventive mechanisms associated with obesity reduction. According to Hruby & Hu (2015), it is easier to analyze risk factors associated with obesity from an individual, socioeconomic, and environmental perspective. Some risk factors considered include energy intake, nutrition, physical activity, education, poverty, access to activity centers or facilities, food deserts, and others. It will also discuss the mechanisms that promote the use of nutrition and physical activity and how they relate to the risk factors in reducing the likelihood of becoming obese. The project draws on expert knowledge, experience, and scholarly research to inform on the decision that nutrition and physical activity can be a first means of defense against the deadly, but preventable, disease. Hence, the research will not only provide insights that professionals can use to make future informed decisions but also serve as a reference point for the reliability of current interventions relying on either or both of the methods proposed.  

Project Rationale

The basic premise behind the project is the notion that prevention is better than cure. Based on the literature by Pandita et al. (2016), obesity has its onset very early in life, and children, therefore, constitute a major group at risk of this disease. It is the reason why health practitioners should prioritize their prevention strategies on children and herald its progress if it is present already. Overweight and obese children have a higher likelihood of being obese as adults compared to normal BMI children, and it is also more challenging for adults to lose excess weight once they become obese as compared to when they are children (Pandita et al., 2016). Although the primary focus is not on childhood obesity, the basic principle that prevention makes it easier to manage obesity among individuals upholds. Several authors provide evidence illustrating the need for exercise interventions as a means of obesity management. However, exercise alone, as discussed by Hamasaki (2017), is not a sufficient long-term weight loss or weight gain prevention technique. Research shows that diet is more effective in managing obesity than exercise. Hence, the current project explores whether either one or both methods optimize health outcomes for obese people or those at risk of becoming obese. 

Project Goals and Objectives

The primary goal for the research is to illustrate the value that nutrition, physical exercise, or a combination of both has on the management of obesity cases, as well as mitigating obesity risk factors. The research will have four specific objectives to help accomplish the overall objective above. The first will be to identify the risk factors associated with obesity, which will help with the discussion on how the proposed solutions fit in mitigating against the risks identified. Next, the research must deconstruct the principles underlying the relationship between nutrition and exercise and obesity, specifically how they can inhibit the adverse effects of obesity. Finally, the research is to provide a recommendation based on the relationship mechanisms identified. Hence, the objectives are;

  • To identify how nutrition and physical exercise can contribute to obesity management
    • To identify critical risk factors of obesity,
    • To determine the value in nutrition and physical exercise in obesity management
    • To establish the relationship between nutrition and physical exercise and the critical risk factors of obesity

Research Hypothesis

Ideally, it is the researcher’s expectation, as informed by literature, that a combination of nutrition and physical activity routines will have optimal outcomes in obesity management as compared to standalone measures. Hence, 

: A routine involving physical exercise and nutrition will have better outcomes for obesity management


Research Design and Methodology

The research adopts an experimental research design. An experimental design is ideal in this case since the primary concern is to establish causal relationships and to test hypotheses (Akhtar, 2016). It involves isolating and manipulating one or more variables to test effects. An experimental design is a type of quantitative method, which is why the research will use a quantitative approach to analysis. The advantage of using the experimental design is that it works in a natural setting, allows for larger-scale research, and the observations do not influence subject behavior (Queirós et al., 2017). It, however, has its shortcomings in that it can sometimes be challenging to control variables, replicate the same conditions of the study, and the possibility of ethical issues arising during the study (Queirós et al., 2017).

Sample Size and Sample Characteristics

The study will require a total of 30 volunteers who will split into three groups to test for the various variables – nutrition alone, physical activity alone, and combined routines. The participants will be between the ages of 18 and 35, and from within the university vicinity. The researcher will use social media, the school bulletin board, and posters in the school departments to advance the idea and source for interest among the students. The ratio of male to female will be 1:1, with an equal number of males and females included in the study. The study used a random probability sampling technique to recruit participants for the study. Simple random sampling refers to the technique where participant selection is entirely by chance, with every case having an equal chance of inclusion (Taherdoost, 2016). Random sampling increases the reliability of the results of the study. The inclusion criteria for the study was a BMI of at least 25. The selection would automatically exclude anyone with an underlying health condition. 


The researcher will gather literature from highly authoritative databases such as the National Institute of Health library, Elsevier, Taylor Francia, ScienceDirect, and EBSCOhost to inform the research. Also, the statistical analysis tool IBM SPSS Statistics 25 to conduct the regression analysis that will establish the relationship between the independent variables. Another core variable needed in the research is a BMI measurement tool. A person is underweight if their BMI ranges between 25 to 29.9 and obese it was in the range of 30 to 35 or greater (Nuttall, 2015). The researcher will liaise with nutritionists on an ideal meal plan for the participants.


The researcher will mostly rely on self-evaluation by participants concerning those following a nutrition routine. However, physical exercise will carry on at the school gymnasium at dedicated times during the day. The researcher will then record the daily BMI rate for individuals for the month during which the study will take place.

Ethical Considerations

An approval from the Institutional Review Board is necessary since the study involves human beings and the sensitive nature of the study. All participants must sign a consent form before proceeding to participate after the researcher provides details about the study. Once the above measures are complete, the questionnaire completion stage can commence, where the researcher obtains information regarding participant demographics. 


Djalalinia, S., Qorbani, M., Peykari, N., & Kelishadi, R. (2015). Health impacts of obesity. Pakistan journal of medical sciences31(1), 239.

Dobbs, R., & Manyika, J. (2015). The obesity crisis. The Cairo Review of Global Affairs5: 44-57

Hamasaki, H. (2017). Physical Activity and Obesity in Adults. Adiposity: Epidemiology and Treatment Modalities, 129.

Hruby, A., & Hu, F. B. (2015). The epidemiology of obesity: a big picture. Pharmacoeconomics33(7), 673-689.

Nuttall, F. Q. (2015). Body mass index: obesity, BMI, and health: a critical review. Nutrition today50(3), 117.

Pandita, A., Sharma, D., Pandita, D., Pawar, S., Tariq, M., & Kaul, A. (2016). Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity: targets and therapy9, 83.

Pandita, A., Sharma, D., Pandita, D., Pawar, S., Tariq, M., & Kaul, A. (2016). Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity: targets and therapy9, 83.

Queirós, A., Faria, D., & Almeida, F. (2017). Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods. European Journal of Education Studies.

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Sampling methods in research methodology; how to choose a sampling technique for research. How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research (April 10, 2016).