The name “Proto-Renaissance” is employed in fine art to describe a certain duration in Italy, referred to as the pre-Renaissance times. Several academicians involved with the study of art argue if the artistic works in Italy between the 13th and 15th centuries were the final stages of medieval art or the commencement of rebirth, also termed the French renaissance. Despite this minor controversy, the artists agree that this period faced significant changes in Western art. During this period in history, several artists contributed to this major change in fine art. Some of them include Giotto, whose works were exhibited between 1267 to 1337, Nicola Pisano during the 1259 to 1260 period and Giovanni Pisano, who had great influence during 1302 to 1310 by his artistic works, among others.
Several different varying concepts characterized this fine art period in terms of architecture, painting and sculpting. Most of the fine artworks during this early rebirth period were religious frescos based on the painting element. One of these works was Masaccio’s Brancacci Chapel. These works continued to be explored by other artists who followed during the renaissance period. Other fresco experts, including Fra Lippi and Andrea Mantegna, continued to emphasize the primary religious topic while gradually incorporating novel viewpoints, foreshortening, more natural perspectives, and anatomic descriptions. Another painting technique that was mainly employed during these periods was oil painting. Some experts also used a combination of oil with tempera on certain panels. Others came up with a more creative technique of colour blocking and texture emphasis. Another example of these painted works during the renaissance period was the Saint Francis Altarpiece.
Based on the sculpting techniques, the aspects of naturalism and classical subdivision were mainly focused on. The artworks inspired these two elements in Rome and Greece. These elements exhibited the peoples’ personalities and humanism. These sculpted works were made using the lost wax procedures, also inherited from Roman times. Another artist was Ghiberti, who was involved with sculpting works and established two sets of the entrance areas for the Baptistery in Florence during the period. An example of the pieces made through sculpting was the pulpit at this Baptistery.
The Flemish method or technique of painting with oil was incorporated from the early periods of fine art practices. This technique can be described by the examples of Jan van Eyck who were included in the list of inventors or the first individuals to practice oil painting. This painting technique first began in the Spanish low-republics. It entailed the generalization and oversimplification of structures to come up with oil paintings in layer forms. Several scholars have currently attempted to contribute to these works done using the Flemish technique. However, some of them have failed to grab the concept since they complicate it by making it seem like it contains several additional layers than it does.
Incorporating the Flemish technique in coming up with oil paintings was significantly advantageous for various reasons. The main pro of this style is the intense recording of details from the images. The ability to capture all components from the respective picture becomes optically appealing. Another advantageous aspect of Flemish paintings is the fact that most symbols are representative of certain concise aspects. These benefits could be observed from images such as Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin, which portrays every bit of detail, making it very appealing to one’s eyes. Additionally, the carved armrest belonging to the Virgin’s bench is symbolic of the first humans created by God who have been replaced by Christ and Mary, who were to restore Christians from the sinful world. Therefore, this technological innovation has evidently been significantly important in the representation of artistic works.
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Kerri Pfister, “Kerri A. Pfister. Review of “Della Robbia: Sculpting with Color in Renaissance Florence” by Marietta Cambareri, Courtney Harris, and Abigail Hykin,” caa.reviews, 2020, xx, doi:10.3202/caa.reviews.2020.20.
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 Judith W. Mann, “Drawing the Virgin,” Federico Barocci, 2017, xx, doi:10.4324/9781315110844-7.
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