The three-step process of paraphrasing consists of interpreting an author’s original passage, rephrasing it (i.e., putting it into your own words), and citing (i.e., giving credit to) the author. In order to paraphrase correctly, students must consider the difference between the original text and the re-wording, while still maintaining the original author’s meaning. In contrast to paraphrasing, the academic crime of plagiarism occurs when a second writer presents an original author’s work as his or her own without the use of quotation marks and citation.

Students need to understand that plagiarism can take many forms beyond the most common example of directly copying the exact words of an author without using both quotation marks and citations .

Plagiarism also occurs when someone uses another author’s original idea or concept (or even bibliography) without properly citing the original author’s work. 

Even unintentional, accidental plagiarism is a serious violation of academic integrity for academics throughout the world. In addition to a damaged reputation, the consequences of plagiarism may include the loss of one’s diploma and employment. Therefore, you must familiarize yourself with Walden University’s rules of academic integrity as well as the proper use of citation formats. Note that Walden University requires the use of American Psychological Association APA format for citations, although other educational institutions and professional associations may prefer different citation formats, such as the Modern Language Association (MLA) or Chicago Style Manual format.

While research  suggests that students in the United States continue to struggle with plagiarism, international students may face additional challenges. For example, cultures that place a high value on group collaboration and group achievement may not know about the American and European rules of intellectual property rights for independent authors.

Application Assignment Directions:

Read the abstracts for each of these four articles available in the Walden Library. Then, read your choice of one article and write a one-paragraph summary that includes a 2 to 3-sentence paraphrase of a statement in the article. Word limits for this paragraph are 100 (minimum) to 200 (maximum). (Warning: Instructors may deduct points for paragraphs that either fail to meet or that exceed the required word count.) At the end of your summary, add a copy of the direct quotation that you are paraphrasing.

Article 1 Abstract: “International deployment of government public health and medical personnel is often necessary to respond to emergencies and enhance global health security. However, there are unique legal challenges for donors and recipient countries. Here, we summarize some of those challenges and existing international fora that may help to identify solutions.” Reference: Davidson, B., Sherman, S., Barraza, L., & Marinissen, M. J. (2015). Legal challenges to the international deployment of government public health and medical personnel during public health emergencies: impact on national and global health security. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics43(s1), 103-106.

Article 2 Abstract: “The main objective of this paper is to explore and describe the discursive politics of surveillance, the constitutional norm that aims to defend citizens from government power via unjustified infringements, the function identity can have as a decisive point of entry into surveillance, and the security facet of surveillance. The material gathered in this study provides a rich and diverse context for understanding the defense of citizens from groundless government power, the governmental discourse of surveillance, the political consequences that follow from the portrayal of surveillance, and the discursive politics of surveillance and identity. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on the constitution of the mutual trust between citizens and government, the joint of the governmental surveillance identity, and the influences of surveillance practices on the articulation of identity.” Reference: Petcu, R. (2015). Government surveillance, neoliberal citizenship, and social identity. Review of Contemporary Philosophy, 14, 126-131.

Article 3 Abstract: “This study introduces a new measure that assesses the extent of organizational change tactics usage within a human service organization. The Organizational Change Tactics Questionnaire (OCTQ) was developed based on a comprehensive review of effective organizational change tactics and adapted to the unique needs of human service organizations. This study presents the psychometric properties of the OCTQ using the tool with 13 large child welfare organizations experiencing organizational change. Respondents who saw a greater use of change tactics and those who were more involved with the change process were significantly more likely to perceive the change process as successful.” Reference:Packard, T., McCrae, J., Phillips, J., & Scannapieco, M. (2015). Measuring organizational change tactics to improve child welfare programs: Experiences in 13 counties. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 39(5), 444-458.

Article 4 Abstract: “A wealth of research has been amassed documenting the effectiveness of drug treatment courts in addressing the needs of substance-abusing individuals involved with the criminal justice system. However, there is a relative dearth of research that examines the long-term impact of these programs on recidivism rates for both drug treatment court graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged from the program. In this study, we examine which demographic and programmatic/legal factors influence program disposition and recidivism rates of participants (both graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged) across the 5 years following their discharge from a drug treatment court program located in a suburban city in the Midwest. The study sample consists of 249 (N = 249) male participants who have been out of the program for more than 5 years. Results from the univariate and multivariate analyses are provided, as well as policy implications, directions for future research, and study limitations.” Reference: DeVall, K. E., Gregory, P. D., & Hartmann, D. J. (2015). Extending recidivism monitoring for drug courts: Methods issues and policy implications. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. doi: 10.11771/0306624X15590205, 1-20.